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Lead Tungstate Crystals from Dongsheng Yan for Large Hadron Collider

Dongsheng Yan led his team to provide more than 5,000 new lead tungstate crystals for the Large Hadron Collider and won the CMS Crystal Award of the European Nuclear Center. He struggled for science and put a "coat" on the missile.

From the "scientific saving of the country" in his youth, to the rejuvenation of the country through the years of science and education, Dongsheng Yan integrated his life into the development of new generations of new materials in New China, and played an important role in the development of the national economy and the construction of major national projects. He is the founder of China's inorganic materials science, as well as an academician of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and Engineering.

Lead tungstate crystal (PbWO4) owns a melting point 1123 ° C, density 8.28g / cm3. It is an inorganic scintillation crystal with excellent comprehensive performance. Tungsten Carbide Round Rod PbWO4 owns properties of short radiation length (0.87cm), Moliere radius (2.12cm), fast flicker decay time (<50ns), and strong resistance to radiation damage, making it be used in high-energy physics research.

Taking country’s needs is the portrayal of Dongsheng Yan's scientific life. In 1918, he was born in Shanghai. In 1946, Mr. Yan went to the United States to study. During his studies at the University of Illinois, he received Ph.D. in ceramics with full A scores. After hearing the news of the founding of New China, he immediately gave up the generous treatment in US, and returned to his motherland resolutely.

At the beginning of returning China, he presided over the formulation of China's first refractory production, inspection, and testing standards, Cemented Tungsten Carbide and promoted the development of China's steel industry. In the 1970s, he was urgently ordered to lead more than 50 secret teams to conduct more than 300 types of sample tests in the extremely simple factory. The developed high-temperature ablation composite material successfully solved in New China. He was known as "the person who puts on coat on missile."

Mr. Yan led Shanghai Ceramic Research Institute to accumulate in the field of scintillation crystals. He immediately organized a team to tackle the problem and eventually won a supply contract for 12,000 BGO crystals. In 1985, the National Science Foundation of the US evaluated the BGO products of various countries, and Mr. Yan and his team attained this only chance. Therefore, when the CERN decided to build the Large Hadron Collider to find the Higgs boson, which required tens of thousands of new lead tungstate crystals to make the core components, it was natural to think of Mr. Yan.

At the end of 2003, the conditions were "harsh", as all the crystals had to be produced in four years and more, Mr. Yan did not "bargain" it. At the age of 85, he not only blurted out the test data of a series of PWO crystals but also personally went to the raw material production workshop in Kunshan city, Jiangsu province to check the crystal quality. In March 2008, Shanghai Silicate Institute successfully delivered about 5,000 high-quality large-size PWO crystals without any delaying. In that year, Mr. Yan was 90 years old.

Even at the age of 90, he was still at the forefront and planning his goals and plans for the future. As a project leader, Mr. Yan led his team to provide more than 5,000 new lead tungstate crystals for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), and won the CMS Crystal Award from the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN). Dongsheng Yan has been fighting for our national science career through his life. This kind of patriotic feeling is the role model of younger generation to learn.

Over 1 Million Miles! Penn State Develops High

A Li-ion battery that is safe, has high power and can last for 1 million miles has been developed by a team in the Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) Battery and Energy Storage Technology (BEST) Center in the United States, according to foreign media report.

Generally, electric vehicle batteries require a trade-off between safety and energy density. If the Li-ion battery has high energy and high-power density, which is required for uphill driving or merging on the freeway, then there is a chance the battery can catch fire or explode under inappropriate conditions. But materials ground tungsten carbide rods that have low energy or power density, and therefore high safety, tend to have poor performance. There is no way to find materials that can meet both safety and energy density requirements. For this reason, battery engineers opt for battery performance over safety.

Chaoyang Wang, a professor at the mechanical, chemical and materials science and engineering of Penn State, and William E. Diefenderfer Chair said: "In this work we decided we were going to take a totally different approach. We divided our strategy into two steps. First we wanted to build a highly stable battery with highly stable materials."

The second step is to introduce instant heating. About 4 years ago, Professor Wang developed a self-heating battery to overcome the problem of poor battery performance tungsten carbide burrs blank in cold weather. This type of battery can be heated in a matter of seconds with an electric current, but it can take several hours with an external heater. By heating the battery from room temperature to about 140 degrees Fahrenheit (60 degrees Celsius), the battery gets an instant boost in reactivity because the law of kinetics is that reactivity increases exponentially with temperature. Professor Wang said: "With these two steps I can get high safety when the battery is not being used and high power when it is."

The self-heating battery, called the All Climate battery, has been adopted by many car companies such as BMW and is powering a fleet of 10,000 cars, which will be used to ferry people between venues at the next Winter Olympics in Beijing, China.

BEST Center tested the safety of the Li-ion battery using nail penetration equipment, caused a short circuit, and then monitored the battery temperature and voltage. The difference in temperature for the passivated cell was 212 degrees Fahrenheit (100 degrees Celsius), while the standard battery has a temperature difference of 1832 degrees Fahrenheit (1000 degrees Celsius), which is an enormous improvement.

Because the battery is made of stable materials, it has a long cycle life. Even at 140 degrees Fahrenheit (60 degrees Celsius), the number of cycles can exceed 4,000, which means that the life span can exceed 1 million miles.

The Penn State research team's next project is to develop a solid-state battery, which tungsten carbide burrs will also likely require heating. And Tesla has previously announced a Li-Ion battery with a life of more than 1 million miles. It seems that the wider popularity of electric vehicles is just around the corner.

Chinese APT Export Prices in 2019 Dropped by 28pc from 2018

Analysis of latest tungsten market from Chinatungsten Online

The average price in 2019 for ammonium paratungstate (APT) duty unpaid Rotterdam and the Chinese APT export prices dropped by more than 28pc from 2018, according to Argus data.

Chinese domestic prices rose briefly in March on concentrate supply tightness but dropped in the second quarter on a lack of buying interest and an inventory sell-off. By July, Cemented Carbide Tips prices had fallen to their lowest since February 2017, dropping below most concentrate producers' average production cost of $1 Cemented Carbide Drill Bits 1,474/t.

Tungsten concentrate producers in December were unwilling to attract sales by cutting prices because of weak profit margins, while downstream buyers operated from stocks or made purchases on prompt demand.

Prices of tungsten products on Jan. 17, 2020

Picture of tungsten carbide powder 

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Tungsten-Molybdenum Mine Pollution Gorgeous “Transformation” in Dabaoshan

Dabaoshan is a used tungsten-molybdenum mine pollution mountain located in Shaoguan city, which is more than 1,000 meters above sea level. The 673meter elevation line contains limonite, copper, sulfur, lead-zinc ore, and tungsten-molybdenum ore, accompanied by gold, silver, tellurium, bismuth and other rare metals. Not only the metal content and variety are large, and the ore deposit is bare and easy to mine.

The earliest mining record of Dabaoshan can be traced back to the Song Dynasty in 999 AD. After being "digging" for more than a thousand years, the "retaliation" from this "Baoshan" began to be revealed year after year: It has become the main source of pollution for groundwater and downstream river water after being abandoned. The bare mountain body rich in heavy metals was gradually washed out by acidic water. The mountain was full of devastation, the grass was not growing, and landslide and mudslide Yg6 Carbide Tips occurred.

At the beginning of this century, the problem of soil contamination has aroused the attention of all parties, then soil environmental management has begun. On May 28, 2016, the State Council's "Soil Pollution Prevention Action Plan" was promulgated and implemented, including Shaoguan city and Taizhou city of Zhejiang province, Huangshi city of Hubei province, and Changde city of Hunan province as soil pollution synthesis.

The sewage treatment builds three phases of sewage clearing and diversion projects. This system can let the clear water flowing down the mountain take a line, then collect the sewage discharged from Dabaoshan and Xinshan mine, and take another line to merge into our downstream. It is understood that the two sewage treatment plants are respectively the Tungsten Carbide Round Rod 12,000 tons and 45,000 tons of Liwu mud storage external drainage treatment phase. The sewage treatment capacity can reach a total of 84,000 tons per day, under normal circumstances, all mine sewage can be collected and fully treated.

In the middle of the mountain not far from the mining area of the tungsten-molybdenum mine, there is a green artificial lake dotted with green islands, and is newly built Fandong tailings pond with an investment of 470 million yuan.

This new reservoir, which is in the downstream of the old tailings pond, has a capacity of 39.8 million cubic meters. It not only collects the wastewater from the beneficiation and washing process but also treats the wastewater from 32 abandoned folks in Fandong area. When it comes to the whole collection, this water is so clear, because after treatment, the treated water can be recycled to production in 100%, and the wastewater is cut off from the source.

The data also shows that this cross-stone water, which has been often "red-brown" for many years, has reached the surface water category II water standard. The scenery of the Fandong tailings reservoir in Dabaoshan is comparable to that of the Swiss scenic area. The soil in situ is green to make the roots green.

The projects placed in Dabaoshan are the latest scientific research achievements in the field of soil safety utilization, and help to changing the tungsten-molybdenum mine pollution mountain into a beautiful place.

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Wolf Minerals' Boss Confident of Tungsten Price Rebound

Wolf Minerals’ boss expects more casualties among rival tungsten producers unless the price of the heavy metal improves substantially, he told investors today.A number of private tungsten mines in China have shut, while another big tungsten mine in Canada, Cantung, run by North American Tungsten, was closed last month.China remains the main source of tungsten production globally but state-owned enterprises are cutting back.The tungsten price needs to recover to at least US$30,000 per tonne from around US$17,000 currently for these producers to remain profitable taper drill bit warned Russell Clark, though he’s not concerned.Wolf only opened the Drakelands mine, a £140 mln tungsten mine on the fringes of Dartmoor, Devon, in September, but he remains confident on the project’s future.“Everyone is hurting at these prices,” he said, 360 DTH hammer “but we remain comfortable that they are not sustainable.”“The silver lining,” he said, “is that while the price is what it is, you won’t see any more mines or projects coming online.”Clark reckons the price will rebound, as demand remains strong and supply is slowing down, but he’s not resting on his laurels.He said Wolf will continue to cut costs where possible once the ramp-up phase of the mine has been completed and until the market come out of “the doldrums”.When the company first commissioned the project the tungsten price was around US$35,000, rock drill bits per tonne.Shares were 3.5% higher to almost 13p.
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